GIT, a distributed version control system
Git is a distributed version control system. Unlike Subversion, this means whole copies of the repository can exist in multiple locations. In practice there is usually the notion of a central repository.
BitBucket Cloud from Atlassian is another git repository hosting solution.
Stash has been renamed to Bitbucket Server, it is a self hosted option.
Remote repositories are git repositories that you can push changes to, or pull changes from. It is possible to have multiple remote repositories.
When a repo is initially cloned, a remote named
origin is tracked that will point to the original repo.
To list all the remote repositories, run
To see all the URLs of the remote repositories, run
git remote -v
To find out the URL of the
origin repo, run
git config remote.origin.url
It will print out the URL.
To change the remote URL for the remote named
git remote set-url origin email@example.com:magicmonster/example.git
Setting your username and email
This can be configured globally or per repository
To change it for the current repo, set the config values
git config user.email firstname.lastname@example.org git config user.name "Joe Bloggs"
To change it for your user, use the –global option.
git config --global user.email email@example.com
Migrating from Subversion
See migrating to git
.gitignore which contains a list of file patterns that git should ignore. See the
gitignore documentation for detailed info.
gitolite, github, and bitbucket all support SSH keys. If you don’t already have a keypair, create one
ssh-keygen, then you can use it for both authentication and identification.
Branching is different in git to subversion. You can have local only branches, which allows for different workflows.
Local branch creation
Switch to your source branch, then checkout and create your new branch. In the following example
is the original branch, and
feature/foofix is the new branch.
git checkout feature/foo git checkout -b feature/foofix
fatal: Failed to lock ref for update: Not a directory
error: unable to resolve reference refs/heads/feature/foo/fix: Not a directory fatal: Failed to lock ref for update: Not a directory
This happened when trying to create a branch named
feature/foo/fix. This is not allowed if a basename
or parent branch called
feature/foo already exists.
Remote branch creation
If you are using a hosted solution, you can do this via the UI.
After it has been created, check it out to your local. In the following example it is assumed your branch is named ‘quickfix’.
git checkout -b quickfix origin/quickfix
To create a remote branch from an existing local branch named
feature/quickfix, you need to push it.
git push origin feature/quickfix
Remove invalid remote tracking branches
The remote origin branch may have been removed, but your local branch still refers to it. This could happen when a pull request has been merged.
git remote prune origin
This will prune references to invalid remote origin branches.
Show merged branches
If a branch has been merged, it makes sense to delete it. I do this for feature branches that have been merged into master.
First list the branches that have been merged
git branch --merged
Delete a local branch
git branch -d foo
Sometimes you do not want to push your changes to the remote branch. You can reset your local branch with the following command:
git checkout quickfix git reset --hard origin/quickfix
Switch to the target branch, then merge commits from the source branch.
git checkout target git merge source
target are branch names.
There is a difference between author and committer. This can happen when you are merging commits authored by people on different branches. There may be special hooks added to the remote git repo that checks your pushes and may reject them. If you are using IntelliJ, use the command line instead to see the error message. e.g. Bitbucket can have hooks that checks that the name and email is valid within the organisation.
If you are interested in an export of only the source code, use the
git archive subcommand.
To access a remote repo, use the
git archive --remote firstname.lastname@example.org:example/example.git --output example.tar master